Hypertension Diagnosis

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is the leading risk factor associated with death in the world but is largely asymptomatic and often undetected in patients. Hypertension is typically asymptomatic and only detected through opportunistic screening. Symptoms only manifest when blood pressure reaches very high levels (usually >200 mmHg systolic), and can include headache, dizziness and nose bleeding. It is usually diagnosed when a patient’s blood pressure is repeatedly found to be 140/90 mmHg or higher in a clinical setting and average readings taken using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring or monitoring at home are higher than 135/85 mmHg. Once hypertension has been diagnosed, further tests should be conducted, including urine testing, blood tests, an eye examination and a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG).Primary hypertension, in which no specific cause is found, affects 95% of patients.

Blood pressure is determined by the cardiac output balanced against systemic vascular resistance. The process of maintaining blood pressure is complex, and involves numerous physiological mechanisms, including arterial baroreceptors, the reninangiotensinaldosterone system, atrial natriuretic peptide, endothelins, and mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid steroids

  • Hypertension differential diagnosis
  • Differential diagnosis I: Primary hypertension
  • Differential diagnosis I: Primary hypertension
  • Differential diagnosis III: Complicated hypertension

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